Owen's Spiritual Worship

...while the liturgical practices of Anglicanism were of concern to Owen, he regarded the aesthetic worship of Rome as the ultimate perversion of Christian worship. Owen's own view was that worship was primarily a spiritual activity, that this spiritual activity focused upon the word preached, and that concern with increasingly elaborate aesthetics was indicative of a decreasing confidence in, and experience of, the power of the word.


Righteous Judgement

"John 7:24. Judge not according to the appearance." ... Circumcision was properly held by them in reverence; and when it was performed on the Sabbath-day, they knew that the Law was not violated by it, because the works of God agree well with each other. Why do they not arrive at the same conclusion as to the work of Christ, but because their minds are preoccupied by a prejudice which they have formed against his person? Judgment, therefore, will never be right, unless it be regulated by the truth of the fact; for as soon as persons appear in public, they turn their eyes and senses on them, so that the truth immediately vanishes. While this admonition ought to be observed in all causes and affairs, it is peculiarly necessary when the question relates to the heavenly doctrine; for there is nothing to which we are more prone than to dislike that doctrine on account of the hatred or contempt of men.


John Calvin, Commentary on the Gospel according to John, vol. 1 (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2010), 296.

From Death to Life

A sinner is not always aware of the time when he crossed from death to life. What initially seemed to be preparation may later prove to have been salvation. The regenerating work of the Spirit is a mystery; we must acknowledge that the wind blows where it pleases and we do not see it (John 3:8).


Joel R. Beeke and Mark Jones, A Puritan Theology: Doctrine for Life (Grand Rapids, MI: Reformation Heritage Books, 2012), 450.

Descended from Adam, not his evolved relative

Image bearers of Adam is hardly an apt, much less valid or even intelligible, description of human beings who are held either to have existed before Adam or subsequently not to have descended from him.


Believers with bear Christ's "heavenly" image , the redeemed and glorified image of God, as they have borne Adam's "earthly" image, the original image of God defaced by sin. It is quite foreign to this passage, especially given its comprehensive outlook noted above, to suppose that some not in the image of Adam will bear the glory-image of Christ. There is no hope of salvation for sinners who do not bear the image of Adam by ordinary generation. Christ cannot and does not redeem what he has not assumed, and what he has assumed is the nature of those who bear the image of Adam and as they do so by natural descent.


Richard Gaffin, "No Adam, No Gospel", p.12